Azerbaijan International




Science That Made a Difference
Summer 1996 (AI 4.2)

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Front Cover: Azerbaijanis have made great contributions in the field of science, particularly in physics. Here Laser beams converging on microchips. The gaseous laser was invented by Azerbaijani descendant, Ali Javan, who now works at MIT in Cambridge, Massachusetts. See the article on page 14. Photo: Westlight / Chuck O'Rear.

Back Cover: "Two Fighting Cocks" by Kamal Ahmad (1986). Contact his widow, Elmira Ahmadov (994-12) 71-98-54 to see Kamal's studio.

Azerbaijanis have contributed to science on a world class level. Read
Dr. Ali Javan's recollections of inventing the Gas Laser in 1960 which has myriad applications from the scanners at supermarket checkout counters, to fiber optics so prevalent in telecommunications. Javan is at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and is of Azerbaijani descent as is true with Lotfi Zadeh, creator of "Fuzzy Logic" (1965) who lives in Berkeley, California.

6 Reader's Forum

9 Editorial

10 Baku Diary: Passport to World Market Economy: English Language - Susan Cornnell

Scientists Who Made A Difference: Ali Javan, The Gas Laser and Beyond - Ali Javan with Blair

Presidential Interview: Heydar Aliyev - Betty Blair

Academy of Sciences: 50th Jubilee

24 Jawbones and Dragon Legends: Azerbaijan's Prehistoric Azikh Cave - Dr. Arif Mustafayev (Latin-page 28)

Baku's Maiden Tower: Legendary Monument of Mystery - Dr. Seyran Valiyev

Scientists Who Made A Difference: Azad Mirzajanzade - Anne Kressler

Scientists Who Made A Difference: Tusi and the Maragha Observatory - Dr. Chingiz Qajar

36 SOCAR Section

Oil Development in Azerbaijan since Last Year's Oil Exhibition - Natig Aliyev

AIOC Current Developments - Einar Bergh

Angolan President: Jose Eduardo dos Santos, Graduate from Baku's Oil Academy

The Development of the Oil & Gas Industry in Azerbaijan - Dr. Khoshbakht Yusifzade

56 Diplomatic Interview: A Conversation with the Three US Ambassadors to the Caucasus - Blair

Scientists Who Made A Difference: Bahram Askerov: Solid State Physics - Marcus Hopkins

"Tilt to Armenia" - Washington Post Editorial

LUKoil Enters the Telecommunications Business

65 Back to Baku! British Bank of the Middle East - Alan Wilkinson

66 "Surf's Up!" in Azerbaijan. The Internet: A Progress Update

Biplanes and Seaplanes: Beginning of Aviation in Azerbaijan - Fuad Akhundov and Nina Fischeva

Modern Math or When 1 + 1 = 135 - Anne Kressler

Azerbaijan Prepares for the Summer Olympics

74 Business Opportunities

Facilitating Investment in Azerbaijan: The US Azerbaijan Chamber of Commerce - Galib Mammad

Music in the Air: Friend's Foundation Sponsors Music Program

78 Sustaining the Spirit of Azerbaijan via Contemporary Persian Literature: Rahim Raisnia "The Glorious Poets of Azerbaijani History - Ali Azeri

86 Azerbaijan International's 1996 Bilingual Resource Directory

From Azerbaijan International (4.2) Summer 1996.
© Azerbaijan International 1996. All rights reserved.

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